He expressionism is a literary and artistic current who was born in German territory at the beginning of twentieth century , whose principles are based on expressing the emotions instead of trying to capture reality. This movement involves a reaction to impressionism , which aims to represent the impression that the real produces in the view.
It can be said that expressionism is a way of understanding the art . Painters, writers, photographers, choreographers, filmmakers and musicians, among other artists, embraced expressionism and turned to demonstrations where inside vision stands out from the creator.
For expressionism, the important thing is the subjective expression of what it feels like and not describe reality objectively. In fact, their works Sometimes they constitute a distortion of the real plane.
The defense of individual freedom, interest in topics that are considered taboo and the predominance of passion and emotion are some of the pillars of expressionism, which encompassed various styles.
Edvard Munch , Vasili Kandinski , Paul Klee and Amedeo Modigliani they are some of the artists that are usually mentioned as referents of expressionism since their works express feelings and are not limited to representing what they reflect senses .
It should be noted that, according to specialists, features of expressionism could already be observed in painters who lived before the twentieth century , as The Bosco (1450-1516), El Greco (1541-1614) and Francisco de Goya (1746-1828). After the Second World War , the movement was disappearing as such, although its influence extended to neo-expressionism, abstract expressionism and others trends .
Let's see below some of the characteristics of expressionism:
* subjectivity : in general, when we talk about expressionism we think of a deformation of reality in order to reflect the subjectivity of the human being This is opposed to a faithful copy of reality or an "impression" of it, just as it happens in impressionism, since it proposes to look beyond the outer layer;
* historic context : It is important to understand that expressionism arose along the so-called Historical Vanguards, at the beginning of the 20th century and before the First World War broke out. It was then that a rejection of positivist philosophy began to spread (which relied on the advances and progress of science to lead society), and this was reflected in a pessimistic attitude and a loss of values which is clearly seen through expressionism;
* style : Although the aesthetics that can be seen in the works of the different artists that represent Expressionism are very varied, something that remained firm from the beginning is the predominance of subjectivity over other factors that interested the Impressionists, such as proximity with the reality and the harmony of its forms. The reason for the differences between the artists lies precisely in that each one sought to capture his own vision, his unique way of seeing the scenes he painted on the canvas;
* ambit : Although Expressionism occurred in several artistic disciplines, its emergence took place in painting, and it was in that framework where it developed most. Among the most prominent pictorial resources of the first examples of expressionism are sensations, dynamism and color. The beginnings of expressionism were lived with a lot of energy, as their representatives did their best to spread this new current , taking their exhibitions to several cities and, over time, crossing the borders of their own countries;
* architecture : as well as painting, architecture He also had his way through Expressionism, and this happened especially in Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Czechoslovakia and Austria.