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The Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ), in your dictionary, defines a effluent as a fluid from an industrial installation . The term comes from the verb effluent , which refers to the escape to the outside of a gas or a liquid.

For example: "A polluting effluent reached the lake and caused massive fish poisoning", "To be sustainable, we have to bet on factories that do not generate effluents and, therefore, are friendly to the environment", “The national government invested ten million pesos to improve the treatment of effluents sewage in the riverside area ”.

Effluents constitute a problem for the ecology because many times they result pollutants . That is why there are laws that establish how industries should treat or pour them. When an untreated effluent reaches the waterways, serious environmental problems can occur that affect the health of people and animals.

In the field of hydrology , the effluent is called water course that arises from a River or from a lake as a branch. The course that, instead, is incorporated into a river or lake, is called tributary .

Hydrology belongs to the group of Earth sciences , the natural disciplines that focus on the study of morphology, the structure , the dynamics and evolution of our planet. The theme that stands out in this framework is water, as can be seen in its lexical component hydor, from the Greek, which can be translated as "water".

The phenomena related to water that are of interest to hydrology are its distribution, its chemical, mechanical and physical properties, its occurrence and its circulation on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere and in the oceans. Said in more precise terms, it focuses on the study of soil moisture, the balance of glaciers from the point of view of their masses, runoff (the current that is poured when a natural or artificial channel is exceeded, or well a deposit).

Confluence It is the place where these courses converge: those that leave (effluents) and those that arrive (tributaries). Effluents can be natural, like those that arise in deltas; or artificial, created by the human being to supply water to a population or for irrigation purposes. In the case of artificial effluents, they are usually channels or ditches .

Another way of understanding effluents is like liquid waste that are not easy to recycle or debug using methods such as depuration biological or physical-chemical, among others of traditional. The cause of this difficulty lies in the characteristics of its composition, which, in turn, result in a great risk if they are discharged by accident. To treat these effluents in the best possible way, therefore, there are specialized companies that have various distillation and evaporation technologies, created to concentrate waste at very high levels.

It is necessary to point out that in several cases companies choose to save and send said effluents to the so-called waste managers, something that entails an economic expense that could be avoided with the treatment in the own ones installations . As if this saving were not enough, from the purification you get by-products that can be sold for extraordinary income.

Among the most advanced and appropriate technologies to treat effluents, are the following:

* crystallizers;
* vacuum evaporators;
* osmosis inverse;
* nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration;
* ion exchange resins;
* biological and physical-chemical treatment plants;
* electrodeionization;

The origin of the effluents that can be treated with these technologies are several, and therefore experts must identify them in each case to know how to proceed. Some possibilities are: power plants; dumps of waste urban solids; industrial activities; gas, oil and mining extraction plants.

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