The Greek term schism, which can be translated as "separation" , came to Latin as schisma. This Latin word, in turn, derived in our language in schism . The concept is used with reference to a secession, a break, a disagreement or a split .
For example: “The words of the president of the club generated a schism in the squad”, "The government has the obligation to avoid the schism and work to achieve the unity of the people", "The complaint of the manager caused a schism within the company".
The idea of schism is often used within the framework of religion to name the separation of a community of faithful into two or more sectors . He Schism of East and West It was produced in 1054 and supposed the break between the Pope (leader of the Roman Catholic Church ) and the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople (leader of the Orthodox Church ).
This moment of history it is also known by the name of Great schism , sometimes also attaching the year in which it took place to distinguish it from other events. The two leaders mentioned above, as well as the hierarchies of the Orthodox Church who shared powers with the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, separated and a mutual excommunication occurred. The disagreement that led to such a fissure included mockery in writing and questioning the legitimacy of certain appointments, something that in current governments seems like current currency.
If we go back almost five centuries ago, when in 589 the Third Council of Toledo , in which the Visigoths converted to Catholicism, the term was coined Filioque, which can be translated as "and of the Son". This caused an alteration in the way the Creed was interpreted, since the Holy Spirit was proceeding from the Father. and also of the Son.
Continuing with the background of the Eastern Schism, twenty years before the council had removed the name of the pope from the diptychs of the Constantinopolitan patriarchate, although even today scholars have not understood the reason for such a decision. One possibility is that the patriarchy had not understood correctly a profession of faith sent by Pope Sergio IV in which the term was present Filioque.
It should be mentioned that the insertion of this term in the Latin Creed had already been carried out in several liturgies of the European continent for two centuries, and that later it would take place especially in the Carolingian, but this did not get the Roman to follow the same path. It took several hundred years until the recitation of the Creed included the word Filioque, and shortly before the schism: in the year 1014, Henry II asked Pope Benedict VIII to recite this prayer during his coronation as emperor, and it was there that everything changed.
The reason that the Pope has agreed to break the tradition of the liturgy Roman, which had remained for approximately seven centuries, was his need for the future emperor to provide military support to the Church.
He Western Schism , on the other hand, took place between 1378 and 1417 . In that period, there were different bishops who faced each other to exercise the pontifical authority of the Catholic Church . The dispute broke out in the conclave of 1378 , which resulted in the election of Urban VI Like dad. The French cardinals, however, disagreed with the development of the election and met again in another place, naming Clement VII Like dad. Urban VI and Clement VII Meanwhile, they decided to excommunicate each other, leaving Catholics without a clear leader: both proclaimed themselves as the representatives of God in the land .